Neuromyelitis Optica/Devic's disease


Inflammation of the optic nerve, which carries information from the eye to the brain, accompanied by inflammation of the spinal cord. The disease can take on either a monophasic form that involves a single attack of symptoms, or a relapsing form involving periodic flares of symptoms.

Common Symptoms

Blindness in one or both eyes, numbness, weakness, or paralysis in the legs or arms, painful spasms, sensation loss, bladder/bowel dysfunction, and uncontrollable vomiting and hiccups. Children are more likely to develop neurological symptoms such as seizures.

Coexisting Diseases and Conditions

Risk Factors and Prevalence

Devic’s disease is more common in populations of Asian or African descent and smoking cigarettes has been identified as a risk factor.
The relapsing form of Devic’s disease is seen more often in females, whereas the monophasic form appears to affect both sexes equally. Children usually develop the monophasic form of the condition.


  1. Article Sources
    1. Eskandarieh, S., Moghadasi, A. N., Sahraiain, M. A., Azimi, A. R., & Molazadeh, N. (2019). Association of cigarette smoking with neuromyelitis optica-immunoglobulin G sero-positivity in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Iranian Journal of Neurology, 18(3), 93–98.

    2. Miao, J., Aboagye, D. E., Chulpayev, B., Liu, L., Ishkanian, G., Kolanuvada, B., Alaie, D., & Petrillo, R. L. (2018). Importance of Regular and Maintenance Therapy Adherence in Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO): Lessons from a Repeating Relapse Case. The American Journal of Case Reports, 19, 41–46.

    3. Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder. (n.d.). NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). Retrieved July 9, 2021, from

    4. Neuromyelitis optica—Symptoms and causes. (n.d.). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved July 9, 2021, from

    5. Tillema, J. M., & McKeon, A. (2012). The spectrum of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in childhood. Journal of Child Neurology, 27(11), 1437–1447.

    6. Miyamoto, K., Minamino, M., Kuwahara, M., Tsujimoto, H., Ohtani, K., Wakamiya, N., Katayama, K. I., Inoue, N., & Ito, H. (2023). Complement biomarkers reflect the pathological status of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. Frontiers in immunology14, 1090548.