Chronic autoimmune urticaria



Urticaria is an allergic skin reaction that results in hives. When these hives appear for longer than six weeks and are recurrent over the course of months or years, the condition is classified as chronic.

Common Symptoms

Red or skin-colored welts that appear and fade repeatedly, as well as itching and painful swelling of the eyelids, lips, and throat.

Risk Factors and Prevalence

More common in adults than in children. There is also a strong female predominance. Other risk factors include changes in the environment, allergens, diet, and stress.


  1. Article Sources
    1. Cassano, N., Colombo, D., Bellia, G., Zagni, E., & Vena, G. A. (2016). Gender-related differences in chronic urticaria. Giornale Italiano Di Dermatologia E Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Societa Italiana Di Dermatologia E Sifilografia, 151(5), 544–552.

    2. Chronic hives—Symptoms and causes. (n.d.). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved July 15, 2021, from

    3. Hamel-Teillac, D. (2003). [Chronic urticaria in children. Annales de dermatologie et de venereologie, 130 Spec No 1, 1S69-72.

    4. Lee, S. J., Ha, E. K., Jee, H. M., Lee, K. S., Lee, S. W., Kim, M. A., Kim, D. H., Jung, Y.-H., Sheen, Y. H., Sung, M. S., & Han, M. Y. (2017). Prevalence and Risk Factors of Urticaria With a Focus on Chronic Urticaria in Children. Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research, 9(3), 212–219.