Interstitial cystitis


Interstitial cystitis is a chronic bladder condition that results in bladder pressure, bladder pain and pelvic pain. While interstitial cystitis has not yet been confirmed as an autoimmune disease, researchers have found indirect evidence indicating its possible autoimmune nature.

Common Symptoms

Frequent urination, pelvic pain, pain between the scrotum and anus in males, the urgent need to urinate, pain and discomfort while urinating, and pain during sexual intercourse.

Coexisting Diseases and Conditions

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), Sjogren’s syndrome, endometriosis, fibromyalgia syndrome, Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)/ Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and anxiety disorders.

Risk Factors and Prevalence

Interstitial cystitis is more prevalent in females. Symptoms of the disease appear before the age of 30. Having fair skin and red hair has also been identified as a potential risk factor.


  1. Article Sources
    1. Interstitial cystitis—Symptoms and causes. (n.d.). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved July 15, 2021, from

    2. Medicine, N. (n.d.). Interstitial Cystitis Causes and Diagnoses. Northwestern Medicine. Retrieved July 15, 2021, from

    3. van de Merwe, J. P. (2007). Interstitial cystitis and systemic autoimmune diseases. Nature Clinical Practice Urology, 4(9), 484–491.