Diabetes, Type 1 (T1D)



Historically called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, T1D occurs when the body’s immune system attacks insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells (islets), causing the body to have insufficient insulin stores. These insufficient insulin levels hinder glucose from entering cells, negatively impairing the energy production process in the body.

Common Symptoms

Increased thirst and hunger, frequent urination, unintentional weight loss, irritability/mood changes, fatigue/weakness, blurred vision, and nausea/vomiting/stomach pains. In children, new incidents of bed-wetting are also common.

Coexisting Diseases and Conditions

Celiac disease, thyroid disorders (like Hashimoto’s thyroiditis or Grave’s disease), Addison’s disease, vitiligo, polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PAS), autoimmune gastritis, heart and blood vessel disease, neuropathy (nerve damage), nephropathy (kidney damage), eye damage, foot damage, skin and mouth conditions, and pregnancy complications.

Risk Factors and Prevalence

If you have family members with T1D, you are at a higher risk of having T1D, too. T1D incidence is highest in Caucasians with roots in northwestern parts of Europe. While T1D can develop at any age, studies frequently note that those between the ages of 4 and 7 or 10 and 14 are most commonly affected.


  1. Article Sources
    1. Atkinson M. A. (2012). The pathogenesis and natural history of type 1 diabetes. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine, 2(11), a007641. https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a007641https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-1-diabetes/symptoms-causes/syc-20353011.

    2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, April 23). Diabetes Risk Factors. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/risk-factors.html. 

    3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, April 27). Diabetes Symptoms. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/symptoms.html.

    4. Krzewska, A., & Ben-Skowronek, I. (2016). Effect of Associated Autoimmune Diseases on Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Incidence and Metabolic Control in Children and Adolescents. BioMed research international, 2016, 6219730. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/6219730.

    5. Mayo Clinic Staff. (2021, March 27). Type 1 diabetes. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-1-diabetes/symptoms-causes/syc-20353011

    6. The Nemours Foundation/KidsHealth. (2013, August). Diabetes Basics. Rady Children’s Hospital-San Diego. https://www.rchsd.org/health-articles/other-diseases-that-are-more-common-in-people-with-type-1-diabetes/.

    7. Rose, N. R., & Mackay, I. R. (2020). The Autoimmune Diseases (6th ed., pp. 769-782). Academic Press.