Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP)

 

 

Overview

HSP, also known as IgA vasculitis, is characterized by inflammation of the small blood vessels located in the skin, joints, intestines, and kidneys, sometimes accompanied by bleeding. Adults are more severely affected than children. HSP typically clears up without treatment, but if it progresses to affecting the kidneys, medical help may be necessary. 

There are two types of HSP. Henoch’s purpura, which involves skin spotting and abdominal issues, and Schölein’s purpura which affects skin and joints only.

Common Symptoms

A purplish rash on the lower legs/buttocks, stomach pain, joint pain, nausea, vomiting, bloody stool, foamy urine and/or bloody urine, headache, fever, loss of appetite, cramping, painful menstruation, hives, and diarrhea.

Coexisting Diseases and Conditions

Rubella, arthritis, intussusception (part of the intestine slides into an adjacent part of the intestine), and kidney damage/failure.

Risk Factors

Those between the ages of 4 and 6 are most commonly affected. Males tend to be more commonly affected by HSP than females. African American children are less commonly affected by the condition than white or Asian children. Environmental triggers include colds, chickenpox, strep throat, measles, and hepatitis. Many recorded cases of HSP have followed upper respiratory infections. Other triggers include certain medications, food, insect bites, and cold weather. 

Sources

  1. Article Sources and Footnotes
    1. Crown. (2020, December 22). Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP). NHS Choices. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/henoch-schonlein-purpura-hsp/

    2. Johns Hopkins Vasculitis Center. (2014, August 1). Henoch-Schönlein Purpura. Johns Hopkins Vasculitis Center. https://www.hopkinsvasculitis.org/types-vasculitis/henochschnlein-purpura/

    3. Mayo Clinic Staff. (2019, July 24). Henoch-Schonlein purpura. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/henoch-schonlein-purpura/symptoms-causes/syc-20354040#:~:text=Henoch%2DSchonlein%20purpura%20(also%20known,the%20lower%20legs%20and%20buttocks

    4. NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). (2015, October 21). Henoch-Schönlein Purpura. NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/henoch-schonlein-purpura/

    5. Reamy, B. V., Williams, P. M., & Lindsay, T. J. (2009, October 1). Henoch-Schönlein Purpura. American Family Physician. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1001/p697.html

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