Inclusion Body Myositis (IBM)


A type of inflammatory myopathy that develops in adulthood (typically after age 50). IBM occurs when the immune system turns against the muscles, damaging muscle tissue. This causes weakness, inflammation, and atrophy.

Common Symptoms

Increasing weakness in the legs, arms, fingers, and wrists, facial muscle weakness or problems with swallowing (dysphagia), muscle cramping, and pain.

Coexisting Diseases and Conditions

Aspiration pneumonia, dysphagia, pernicious anemia, dermatitis herpetiformis, Sjögren’s syndrome, psoriasis, common variable immunodeficiency, HIV infection, cutaneous lupus, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, transverse myelitis, dermatomyositis, and malabsorption with gluten-sensitive enteropathy.

Risk Factors and Prevalence

Sex and genetic factors are both thought to be risk factors for this disease. Studies have found that those with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, pneumonia, anemia, or diabetes mellitus are also at increased risk of developing IBM.


  1. Article Sources
    1. Cleveland Clinic. (2019, April 4). Inclusion body myositis: Symptoms, causes, tests and treatment. Cleveland Clinic.

    2. Cortese, A., Machado, P., Morrow, J., Dewar, L., Hiscock, A., Miller, A., Brady, S., Hilton-Jones, D., Parton, M., & Hanna, M. G. (2013). Longitudinal observational study of sporadic inclusion body myositis: implications for clinical trials. Neuromuscular disorders : NMD, 23(5), 404–412.

    3. Koffman, B. M., Rugiero, M., & Dalakas, M. C. (1998). Immune-mediated conditions and antibodies associated with sporadic inclusion body myositis. Muscle & Nerve, 21(1), 115–117.<115::aid-mus15>;2-2

    4. Muscular Dystrophy Association. (2021, April 27). Inclusion-Body myositis (IBM) – diseases. Muscular Dystrophy Association.

    5. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2017, October 12). Inclusion body myositis. Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center.