Researchers around the world are creating and testing over 100 vaccines in an effort to combat the novel coronavirus. This chart breaks down the leading vaccines that have shown promise through pre-clinical data, completed Phase 1/2/3 clinical trials, and have been authorized for emergency use/ received approval.
At this time, the World Health Organization (WHO) has authorized the use of the vaccines mentioned besides the Sputnik vaccine.
Preclinical data is collected when testing a vaccine on cells and animals. If an immune response is detected, the study moves forward as a Phase 1 safety trial by testing the safety of the vaccine on a select number of people (typically around 20-80 people).
If the dosage is deemed safe and effective, the trial progresses to a Phase 2 expanded trial, in which hundreds of people receive the vaccine. At this stage, participants are split into groups to observe the vaccine’s efficacy and safety across a spectrum of ages.
A Phase 3 efficacy trial tests for vaccine efficacy against volunteers who receive a placebo. Thousands of participants are included in the trial, and an efficacy rate is determined for the vaccine against a virus.
Due to the nature of the coronavirus, some vaccine trials underwent combined phases (e.g. Phase 1/2) in order to accelerate development.
The information shared on this page is accurate to the best of our knowledge. Because the COVID-19 pandemic is rapidly evolving, as is the scientific community’s understanding of this virus, information and insights are constantly updating. Please read resources provided by the CDC, WHO, and public health authorities to stay informed, and seek professional medical advice for best practices pertaining to your medical plan.