Testicular Autoimmunity

 

 

Overview

Testicular autoimmunity arises in the forms of testicular vasculitis and orchitis. Testicular vasculitis is the inflammation and pathological destruction of the testis’s blood vessels due to various systemic diseases (such as polyarteritis nodosa or granulomatosis with polyangiitis), rheumatoid arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and Henoch-Schönlein purpura. Testicular orchitis is the chronic inflammation of the testes due to the presence of anti-sperm antibodies. These two conditions can significantly decrease sperm production and cause symptoms associated with testicular discomfort.

Common Symptoms

Swollen testicles (one or both), mild-to-severe testicular pain, fever, nausea and vomiting, general malaise, infertility, scrotal pain, and urinary tract infection symptoms.

Risk Factors

Previous cases of infectious orchitis, general severe infections, having had a vasectomy, having cystic fibrosis, and prior viral infection.

Sources

  1. Article Sources and Footnotes
    1. Jacobo, P., Guazzone, V. A., Theas, M. S., & Lustig, L. (2011). Testicular autoimmunity. Autoimmunity reviews, 10(4), 201–204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2010.09.026.

    2. Suo, L., Perez, L. C., & Finch, C. J. (2019). Testicular granulomatous vasculitis mimicking testicular torsion in an anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis patient. SAGE open medical case reports, 7, 2050313X18823451. https://doi.org/10.1177/2050313X18823451.

    3. Smith, H. (n.d.). Testicular vasculitis: Radiology Reference Article. Radiopaedia Blog RSS. https://radiopaedia.org/articles/testicular-vasculitis?lang=gb.  

    4. Mayo Clinic Staff. (2020, November 6). Orchitis. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/orchitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20375860.  

    5. Trojian, T., Lishnak, T. S., & Heiman, D. L. (2009, April 1). Epididymitis and Orchitis: An Overview. American Family Physician. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0401/p583.html

    6. Silva, C. A., Cocuzza, M., Borba, E. F., & Bonfá, E. (2012). Cutting-edge issues in autoimmune orchitis. Clinical reviews in allergy & immunology, 42(2), 256–263. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12016-011-8281-z

    7. Rose, N. R., & Mackay, I. R. (2020). The Autoimmune Diseases (6th ed., p. 1241-1243). Academic Press.

Join Our Community!Stay Informed. Stay Hopeful.

Sign up for periodic emails with resources, insights, and updates on autoimmune disease and living with chronic illness.

By adding your phone number, you agree to receive text message updates. Msg & data rates may apply.