Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP)

 

 

Overview

Caused by the inflammation of the nerves and destruction of the myelin sheath (insulated covering) of the nerve fibers, CIPD may be closely related to or even a chronic form of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

Several variants of CIDP have been identified, including:

  • Multifocal variant also known as  Lewis-Sumner syndrome or MADSAM (multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor)
  • Pure sensory variants 
  • Distal variant
  • Pure motor variant 

Common Symptoms

Tingling and numbness in the arms and legs, gradual weakening of muscles, loss of reflexes, loss of balance, fatigue, and double vision. 

The variants of CIDP have slight differences in symptoms:

  • Multifocal variant: asymmetric deficits which may involve individual different nerves
  • Pure sensory variants: no muscle weakness is present, but symptoms of imbalance are present
  • Distal variant: the sensory and motor deficits do not involve proximal arms and legs
  • Pure motor variant: no symptoms of sensory abnormality

Coexisting Diseases and Conditions

Guillain-Barré syndrome and type 1 diabetes.

Risk Factors

CIDP generally affects more males than females. A study has also identified certain dietary habits that influence the risk of acquiring the condition.

Sources

  1. Article Sources and Footnotes
    1. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) Information Page | National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (n.d.). Https://Www.Ninds.Nih.Gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Chronic-Inflammatory-Demyelinating-Polyneuropathy-CIDP-Information-Page. Retrieved July 12, 2021, from https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Chronic-Inflammatory-Demyelinating-Polyneuropathy-CIDP-Information-Page

    2. Doneddu, P. E., Bianchi, E., Cocito, D., Manganelli, F., Fazio, R., Filosto, M., Mazzeo, A., Cosentino, G., Cortese, A., Jann, S., Clerici, A. M., Antonini, G., Siciliano, G., Luigetti, M., Marfia, G. A., Briani, C., Lauria, G., Rosso, T., Cavaletti, G., … Italian CIDP Database Study Group. (2020). Risk factors for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP): Antecedent events, lifestyle and dietary habits. Data from the Italian CIDP Database. European Journal of Neurology, 27(1), 136–143. https://doi.org/10.1111/ene.14044

    3. Duggal, N., Ahmed, I., & Duggal, N. (2014). Acute Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitis Associated With Autoimmune Myopathy. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology, 7(4), 19–22. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4241410/

    4. Leake, J. A. D., Billman, G. F., Nespeca, M. P., Duthie, S. E., Dory, C. E., Meltzer, H. S., & Bradley, J. S. (2002). Pediatric Acute Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitis: Report of a Surviving Patient and Review. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 34(5), 699–703. https://doi.org/10.1086/338718

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