Autoimmune Hypophysitis

 

 

Overview

Also known as lymphocytic hypophysitis, this disease is characterized by chronic inflammation of the pituitary gland resulting in a reduction of several pituitary hormones related to various metabolic functions.

Common Symptoms

Headache, absence of menstruation in females, sexual dysfunction in males, visual disturbances, and diplopia.

Coexisting Diseases and Conditions

Diabetes insipidus, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, and Addison’s disease.

Risk Factors

Research states that females are 3 times more likely to get autoimmune hypophysitis than males. The condition also is more likely to occur during the third trimester of pregnancy or early postpartum period.

Sources

  1. Article Sources and Footnotes
    1. Gutenberg, A., Landek-Salgado, M., Tzou, S.-C., Lupi, I., Geis, A., Kimura, H., & Caturegli, P. (2009). Autoimmune hypophysitis: Expanding the differential diagnosis to CTLA-4 blockade. Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism, 4(6), 681–698. https://doi.org/10.1586/eem.09.37.

    2. Rose, N. R., & Mackay, I. R. (2020). The Autoimmune Diseases (6th ed., pp. 815–828). Academic Press.

    3. Dalmazi, G. Di, Caturegli, P. & Chalan, P. Chapter 43 – Autoimmune Hypophysitis. in The Autoimmune Diseases (Sixth Edition) (eds. Rose, N. R. & Mackay, I. R.) 815–830 (Academic Press, 2020). doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-812102-3.00043-9.

    4. Iwama S, De Remigis A, Callahan MK, Slovin SF, Wolchok JD, Caturegli P. “Pituitary expression of CTLA-4 mediates hypophysitis secondary to administration of CTLA-4 blocking antibody.” Sci Transl Med. 2014 Apr 2;6(230):230ra45. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3008002

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