Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA)




Autoantibodies attack red blood cells at a faster rate than they can be replaced, leading to dangerously low red blood cell levels.

Common Symptoms

Paleness, fatigue, shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat, chills, dark urine, and backache.

Coexisting Diseases and Conditions

Systemic lupus erythematosus and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. When AIHA coexists with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, it is called Evans syndrome.

Risk Factors

AIHA is twice as common in females as males, and the risk increases with age. AIHA can also occur after the use of certain drugs such as penicillin or following a bone marrow stem cell transplant. Viral infections such as Epstein-Barre and hepatitis have also caused AIHA.


  1. Article Sources and Footnotes
    1. Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics. (n.d.). Retrieved July 12, 2021, from

    2. Anemia, Hemolytic, Acquired Autoimmune. (n.d.). NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). Retrieved July 12, 2021, from

    3. Garratty, G. (2009). Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia. Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program, 73–79.

    4. Hosoba, S., Jaye, D. L., Cohen, C., Roback, J. D., & Waller, E. K. (2015). Successful treatment of severe immune hemolytic anemia after allogeneic stem cell transplantation with bortezomib: Report of a case and review of literature. Transfusion, 55(2), 259–264.

    5. Michalak, S. S., Olewicz-Gawlik, A., Rupa-Matysek, J., Wolny-Rokicka, E., Nowakowska, E., & Gil, L. (2020). Autoimmune hemolytic anemia: Current knowledge and perspectives. Immunity & Ageing : I & A, 17, 38.

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