Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA)



In JIA, autoantibodies target healthy joint cells and tissues. Formerly known as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, JIA is a diagnosis that covers all forms of arthritis in individuals under 16 that last more than 6 weeks and whose origin is unknown
JIA can arise in 6 different subtypes: 

Common Symptoms

Joint pain, swelling, stiffness, fevers, swollen lymph nodes, and rashes (particularly on the torso of the body).

Coexisting Diseases and Conditions

Eye inflammation (uveitis) can arise if left untreated, such as cataracts, glaucoma, and blindness, growth and bone development can be affected both by the condition itself and certain medications (mainly corticosteroids) used to treat the condition, psoriasis, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, diabetes mellitus.

Risk Factors and Prevalence

Girls tend to be more than twice as likely as boys to develop JIA. Further studies have shown that children aged 2-4 and 6-12 are at the highest risk of developing JIA. Studies have found that exposure to cigarette smoke puts children at further risk of developing JIA.


  1. Article Sources and Footnotes
    1. Ellis, J. A., Munro, J. E., & Ponsonby, A.-L. (2010). Possible environmental determinants of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Rheumatology, 49(3), 411–425. https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kep383.

    2. França, C. M. P., Sallum, A. M. E., Braga, A. L. F., Strufaldi, F. L., Silva, C. A. A., & Farhat, S. C. L. (2018). Risk Factors Associated with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Exposure to Cigarette Smoke and Air Pollution from Pregnancy to Disease Diagnosis. The Journal of Rheumatology, 45(2), 248–256. https://doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.161500.

    3. Juvenile Arthritis | Boston Children’s Hospital. (n.d.). Https://Www.Childrenshospital.Org/Conditions-and-Treatments/Conditions/j/Juvenile-Arthritis. Retrieved July 9, 2021, from https://www.childrenshospital.org/conditions-and-treatments/conditions/j/juvenile-arthritis

    4. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis. (n.d.). Ada. Retrieved July 9, 2021, from https://ada.com/conditions/juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis/.

    5. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) | Arthritis Foundation. (n.d.). Retrieved July 9, 2021, from https://www.arthritis.org/diseases/juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis.

    6. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis—Symptoms and causes. (n.d.). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved July 9, 2021, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis/symptoms-causes/syc-20374082.

    7. Simon, T. A., Harikrishnan, G. P., Kawabata, H., Singhal, S., Brunner, H. I., & Lovell, D. J. (2020). Prevalence of co-existing autoimmune disease in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: A cross-sectional study. Pediatric Rheumatology, 18(1), 43. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12969-020-00426-9.

    8. Rose, N. R., & Mackay, I. R. (2020). The Autoimmune Diseases (6th ed., pp. 676-687). Academic Press.

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