Hybrid Immunity in Autoimmune Rheumatic Disease Patients
January 6, 2022
Researchers at the Center For Arthritis and Rheumatism Excellence in Kerala, India, tested immune responses in autoimmune rheumatic disease patients (AIRD) after one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine following a SARS-CoV-2 infection versus two doses of a COVID-19 vaccine without a previous infection.
Serum and plasma samples were collected from AIRD patients who had a previous COVID-19 infection, who then received one dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine. These samples were compared to serum samples from three groups with participants matching in age, sex, and disease. The first patient group included participants who had COVID-19 in the past 6 months, but had not received a COVID-19 vaccine. The second patient group included participants who received only one dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine, and a third group included participants who received a complete primary series of the AstraZeneca vaccine.
Of 120 patients across the four groups, AIRD patients who recovered from COVID-19 and received one dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine had the highest number of neutralizing antibodies. “There was 100% seroconversion in the infection plus vaccine group, compared with 90% in the double dose vaccine group. The infection plus vaccine group also had higher neutralisation capacity (87% of individuals with at least 30% neutralisation) compared with the double dose vaccine group.” The effect of immunosuppressants was not studied.