The mRNA Vaccine
January 19, 2021
These are truly novel times that we are experiencing, and the scientific community is no different. Interest in messenger RNA (mRNA) continues to grow within the medical community, especially since the developments of breakthrough COVID-19 vaccines. It is important to note that even after 30 years of research, mRNA vaccines have never before been approved for use in any disease, until now (1). However, researchers in Germany recently used mRNA technology to reduce disease activity in mice with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE), a disease similar to multiple sclerosis (2).
mRNA vaccines involve using a small strand of distinct genetic material that carries the instructions for building a specific part of a cell. In the case of COVID-19, the mRNA vaccine contains instructions for building the virus’s “spike” protein. When a person receives the mRNA vaccine for the virus that causes COVID-19, their own cells are able to build the spike protein. This ramps up an immune system response against the virus.
This response is especially important when it comes to battling the virus that causes COVID-19 because the SARS-CoV-2 virus in particular has the ability to dampen the immune system response while it is still replicating. This can lead to infected individuals spreading the virus to others while still asymptomatic. This technique has never been seen before. Virologist Benjamin TenOever of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai stated that “it’s something I have never seen in my 20 years of studying viruses” when discussing the virus’ ability to commandeer cells’ genomes (3).
Although it may be quite a while before human clinical trials become a possibility, this research is significant. It shows the potential of mRNA vaccines to treat disease-specific autoimmunity without relying on therapies that suppress immune system function as a whole.
Wondering how mRNA vaccines are processed? Check out this video!