Autoimmune Encephalitis



This collection of diseases occur when autoantibodies attack brain cells, causing inflammation of the brain.

Common Symptoms

Impaired memory and cognition, abnormal movements, seizures, and/or problems with balance, speech, or vision, psychosis, aggression, inappropriate sexual behaviors, panic attacks, compulsive behaviors, euphoria, or fear.

Coexisting Diseases and Conditions

Multiple sclerosis, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, and vasculitis.

Risk Factors and Prevalence

Research has shown that herpes simplex encephalitis can trigger autoimmune encephalitis. Other risk factors include infectious causes, HIV diagnosis, and tumors.


  1. Article Sources and Footnotes
    1. Autoimmune Encephalitis | OHSU. (n.d.). Https://Www.Ohsu.Edu/Brain-Institute/Autoimmune-Encephalitis. Retrieved July 9, 2021, from

    2. Armangue, T., Spatola, M., Vlagea, A., Mattozzi, S., Cárceles-Cordon, M., Martinez-Heras, E., Llufriu, S., Muchart, J., Erro, M. E., Abraira, L., Moris, G., Monros-Giménez, L., Corral-Corral, Í., Montejo, C., Toledo, M., Bataller, L., Secondi, G., Ariño, H., Martínez-Hernández, E., … Zabalza, A. (2018). Frequency, symptoms, risk factors, and outcomes of autoimmune encephalitis after herpes simplex encephalitis: A prospective observational study and retrospective analysis. The Lancet Neurology, 17(9), 760–772.

    3. Lancaster, E. (2016). The Diagnosis and Treatment of Autoimmune Encephalitis. Journal of Clinical Neurology (Seoul, Korea), 12(1), 1–13.

    4. Rose, N. R., & Mackay, I. R. (2020). The Autoimmune Diseases (6th ed., pp. 1086-1087). Academic Press.