- Is immunogenic (produces an immune response) and cytotoxic (toxic to cells)
- Stimulates Th17 (cells that play a role in host defense against extracellular pathogens, particularly at the mucosal and epithelial barriers, but aberrant activation has been linked to the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases)
- Increases intestinal permeability/inflammation
- Causes microbial dysbiosis (a disruption to the gut microbiota homeostasis caused by an imbalance in the microflora, changes in their functional composition and metabolic activities, or a shift in their local distribution)
A gluten-free diet can improve non-celiac autoimmune diseases.
This is discussed by Lerner and his team in their publication in Cells, titled “Let Food Be Thy Medicine: Gluten and Potential Role in Neurodegeneration.”