Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis

 
 

Overview

A form of encephalitis that occurs when the immune system attacks NMDA receptors in the brain, resulting in brain swelling and disruption of signaling pathways.

Common Symptoms

Confusion, hallucinations, delusional thinking, disinhibited behaviors, speech dysfunction, memory deficits, seizures, movement disorders, autonomic dysfunction, sleep disorders, and flu-like symptoms.

Coexisting Diseases and Conditions

Researchers have identified scleroderma, multiple sclerosis, Sjögren’s syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis as coexisting conditions.

Risk Factors and Prevalence

Females are 4 times more affected than males. The typical age of onset is between 25 and 35 years old. Tumors, usually teratoma found in the ovaries, trigger the disease.

Sources

  1. Article Sources and Footnotes
    1. The Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis Foundation Inc. (2018, July 3). What is Anti-nmda Receptor Encephalitis? The Anti NMDA Receptor Encephalitis Foundation . https://www.antinmdafoundation.org/the-illness/what-is-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis/

    2. The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania . (n.d.). Center for Autoimmune Neurology. Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis | Center for Autoimmune Neurology | Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. https://www.med.upenn.edu/autoimmuneneurology/nmdar-encephalitis.html.

    3. Dalmau, J., Armangué, T., Planagumà, J., Radosevic, M., Mannara, F., Leypoldt, F., Geis, C., Lancaster, E., Titulaer, M. J., Rosenfeld, M. R., & Graus, F. (2019). An update on anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis for neurologists and psychiatrists: mechanisms and models. The Lancet. Neurology, 18(11), 1045–1057. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(19)30244-3

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